可否不唱《君之代》


戰後日本一直沿用戰前的日之丸國旗及君之代國歌,但原來直至1999年8月「國旗國歌法」成立以前,日之丸及君之代並無法律地位。換言之,嚴格來說,1945-1999的54年間,日本沒有真正的國旗國歌。對執政自民黨的主流意識形態而言,日本要做一個「正常國家」(用安倍晉三語是「美麗國家」),國旗國歌是必須的(甚至戰爭權也是)。問題是政府強迫學校在入學及畢業典禮,學校要昇日之丸,師生齊唱君之代,引起教師們的反感。不少抗命者被處份,亦有教師訴諸法庭。




戰後教育界一直是左派的重鎮,以教師組成的「日教組」更是代表性的左派組織。不過近年左派影響力已今非昔比,一些地區的教育委員會被右派接管。文部科學省向各地的教育委員會施壓,要它們保証學校嚴格執行昇國旗及唱國歌。不服從而受罰的教師已逾三百,其中以「根津事件」較有名。中學女教師根津被罸停職三個月,她成為反「國旗國歌法」運動的先鋒。東京都401名教師控告日本政府違憲,東京地方裁判在06年9月判教師勝訢,指出強迫用與戰前軍國主義有關的日之丸及君之代違反憲法保障的「思想自由」,教師每人獲三萬円賠償精神損失。


不過法庭的判决並不會改變,甚至减慢日本「保守化」的趨勢。早前法院也謂小泉參拜靖國神社違憲,但小泉一樣照拜。政府强迫學校用日之丸及君之代只會不斷增加力度。估計安倍上臺後對中韓會採一些緩和關係的姿態(如在靖國問題上),但對內會強勢推動右傾政策(如修憲、國旗國歌、保安、教科書、傳媒等)。日之丸及君之代不過是左右勢力的首圈角力,好戲還在後頭。

P.S 聽說香港政府有指引訓示學校典禮升五星旗及唱義勇軍進行曲,現大多學校都有升旗及播歌(唱者不多)。不知將來會否像日本般立法強行?不知大家是否接受這種「公民教育」?

伸延閱讀:網上新版日本國歌
Posted by 知日部屋屋主 | 評論(49) | 引用(0) | 閱讀(21642)
日本藤素 Homepage +
2020/03/30 17:50
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2019/11/20 22:21
持久液        壯陽藥     日本藤素       補腎     必利吉
yoshida +
2006/10/03 23:48
国歌・国旗に対して敬意をはらえない日本人に教師をつとめる資格はありません。恥ずかしい日本人の代表です。学校の教師は、サヨクが多いから仕方ないか・・・。我々は、彼らによって教育されたのです。最近は、その事に気づいてる日本人が、多くなりました。いい傾向です。
叶七 +
2006/09/30 13:24
抱歉,我从来不觉得学校举行升旗仪式限制了我们的自由,我最大的心愿是能在天安门城楼上看到升旗仪式呢。我相信,世界上是没有绝对的自由,所有的自由都是有度的。比如人没有杀人的自由,国家没有干涉别国内政的自由,中国学校的学校也没有升美国国旗的自由。
   还有,我不想一上来就和别人争论,捉字对决,我只在谈自己的感受。请你也不要那么激动!laugh
Bernard +
2006/09/30 08:51
TO 水無月:

- "how come people think they are the "special-breed-brainwashing" goveronment, which haven't happened to either America and Japan. If you think about it, you will know why I said it's getting complicated in the case of America. (Hints. where do you get that idea from? )"

To make sure we're on the same page, maybe I can summarize your argument.  You're saying that people in the world see the Chinese government as a brainwashing regime, and so there must be a reason for that.  If the Chinese government is not guilty of some wrongs, then the international community wouldn't see China as it currently does.  You're saying that there must be a reason why people single out China as a brainwashing regime (while Japan and US are not criticized in the same way).

I don't agree with your argument.  By your reasoning, a person who is accused by everyone as a murderer would be thrown in jail, and there wouldn't be a need for trial.  If everyone thinks he's a murderer, then he MUST be guilty by your reasoning.

Sure, there are propagandas and oppressions in China, but China has made great improvements.  However, the views of the international community have not caught up with those changes.  They are often times prejudiced.  People still think China brainwashes its children through national anthems, but forget the fact that Japan and US do the same things.  (China is also unfairly singled out in the net crime discussion and the SK-II discussion) I don't think it's wise for Chinese to treat themselves in this way.  While US and Japan gain strength by encouraging patriotism, the Chinese are tying up their own hands.  I hope Chinese can learn from the Japanese's unity.  

- "(PS. I am not so good at English, although I have been being here for a while. please forgive me if it is unclear to you)"

There's no need to apologize.  I actually need to thank you for accomodating with me by typing in English.  (^_^) Also, I can read Chinese, but I just have to type English because I haven't learned how to type Chinese yet.  You can respond in Chinese if it's more convenient for you.

Lastly, I apologize to the blogmaster if this comment is off topic, but I guess it's somewhat related because it's about nationalism and propaganda, which are issues the article relates to.
水無月 +
2006/09/30 00:40
TO Bernard:
I apologize for not doing any research on the situation in early education (for your information, I came here since grade 12 as a exchange student).

I absolutely agree your view that chinese goveronment isn't the evil one (nor Japan). But I think the point that I have made is how come people think they are the "special-breed-brainwashing" goveronment, which haven't happened to either America and Japan. If you think about it, you will know why I said it's getting complicated in the case of America. (Hints. where do you get that idea from? )

(PS. I am not so good at English, although I have been being here for a while. please forgive me if it is unclear to you)
金長~~~ +
2006/09/29 10:48
一般情况不会强迫唱,但是领袖不在了一定要都哭……
Bernard +
2006/09/29 03:22
To 水無月,
I don't know how long you've lived in the US, but if you grew up there, then you should be familiar with the pledge of allegiance.  American students in public schools are asked to swear their loyalty every morning.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pledge_of_allegiance
I don't totally disagree with 水無月 and yinlok.  However, I just want to keep things fair.  I don't think it's necessary to find an evil motive behind every single action by the Chinese government.  For example, Chinese students may be asked to sing the national anthem every morning, but as we've learned, students in America and Japan are asked to do the same things.  Chinese are not a special breed brainwashed by the Chinese government as many view them to be.  The same applies to the SK-II and net crime discussions that we've had earlier.  Most governments do the same thing and have the same regulations, but when the Chinese government does the same thing, then people point to it as Chinese barbarism.  I don't think it's fair.
水無月 +
2006/09/29 01:22
to 叶七
先不要那麼激動sweat

自己在美國跟中國都短住過...
請讓我說幾句

1. 我堅信大陸是不會強迫學生唱國歌的
但問題是他們要求學校執行升旗儀式
正如你說的:"学校的升旗仪式,广播里会放国歌,要不要跟唱,别人管不着!"
的確沒有能管, 但根據心理學中, 有一理論是說明"如果長期接觸同一事物, 即使你不去留意它, 那也刻印在你腦中, 使你習慣性回憶起(ex. 廣告)" 所以嚴格來說重複性發放與國家身份有關的訊息已經是"大力推行這種愛國主義教育" , 而這亦被普遍認為是在宣傳單一思想.

2.有關美日: 第一, yinlok文中並沒有直接討論有關日本的情況. 第二, 美國的愛國文化是自發性的. 不過其實也是建於宣傳(不過人家的宣傳技倆較高點吧).美國的情況很複雜, 我不想OT太多.  我個人認為yinlok文中的重點是"自由國家所不應規定的". 自由國家應盡少使用限制的手段(PS. 還是用宣傳吧...) 這點是中國近年常被外國評論的.

3."中国运动员拿到金牌" 的例子是自發性愛國心的表現, 是值得光榮的!!


(OT PS. 小弟剛從香港旅遊回美, 重投部屋的懷抱.....笑)
叶七 +
2006/09/27 14:28
升旗仪式也不是什么大不了的事,每天全球不知道有多少个国家的旗帜冉冉升起。但是,日本有他特别的国情,太过复杂。让他们自己去烦恼去吧!

给yinlok
     我长这么大,第一次知道大陆会强迫人唱国歌的!真是大新闻!
   小时侯音乐老师会用一堂课的时间教授国歌,会不会唱是你家的事,唱错跑调也是你家的事。至于学校的升旗仪式,广播里会放国歌,要不要跟唱,别人管不着!
   你说“中國則大力推行這種愛國主義教育”,而美日没有,那么美国人为什么要家家户户挂国旗呢?他们升旗唱歌时候,还都习惯把手放在心脏位置,表示对祖国的热爱。美国人有爱美国的自由,日本人有爱日本的自由,中国人当然也有爱中国的自由。
   一堂教唱国歌的音乐歌,升国旗仪式听国歌,在历史课上了解一段60年前日本侵略中国的痛苦历史,大概就是你说的“大力推行”吧!
   我曾经在电视上见过,奥运会直播,中国运动员拿到金牌,站到领奖台上的时候,在场的中国人不约而同地高唱起了国歌,虽然嗓子哑,调子高低不一,仍将音乐声都压倒的壮观景象,一辈子也不会忘记。
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